Two Types of Vertical Integration

Vertical Integration pic
Vertical Integration

Alexander Christodoulakis is the CEO of PBS SA Capital Group and serves as President of Portland Marine Group.

Using a vertically integrated management system within his corporate portfolio has helped to provide Alexander’s companies under management with a degree of stability and sustainability in a volatile global market.

A company that decides to vertically integrate can do so by using either a forward or backward methodology. Below is a brief description and an example of each.

1. Forward integration – This type of integration occurs when a manufacturer sells directly to the retailer, rather than going through a wholesaler. The advantage of forward integration lies in the elimination of the middleman, which reduces cost in the distribution process. Apple, Inc. adopted a forward integration business method when it began opening retail stores through which to sell its products directly to consumers.

2. Backward integration – Backward integration is a business strategy involving the purchase of one or more of the suppliers in a manufacturer’s supply chain, thereby reducing cost and streamlining business. An example of this strategy is Amazon: originally booksellers, the company integrated backwards when it went into publishing.

Two Types of Wind Turbines

renewable energy
renewable energy


A veteran business professional with an international background, Alexander Christodoulakis serves as CEO of PBS SA Capital Group. A global finance solutions company with a focus on the transportation, shipping and energy sectors.

Among the company groups under the portfolio management, Alexander Christodoulakis manages is Portland Energy Corporation, which until few years ago features one of the largest clean tech portfolios in the world by Mega Watt size.

One example of clean tech in the energy world is wind energy. Harnessing the power of wind into electricity does not produce greenhouse gasses and is completely renewable. There are two basic types of wind turbines used to generate power.

The Horizontal axis turbines and the Vertical axis turbines. Patented in 1931, the vertical axis turbine is not widely used today, as its performance cannot match that of the horizontal axis turbine.

About Alexander Christodoulakis

Alexander Christodoulakis
Alexander Christodoulakis

As the CEO of PBS SA Capital Group, Alexander Christodoulakis guides a firm that oversees an international portfolio of companies.

Areas of focus include the energy, maritime, transportation sectors. Toronto based PBS SA Capital manages an international group of Companies. A Financial group, with Marine and Energy companies under its management including its diversified global portfolio.

In the financial services, as a support mechanism for the Financial Operations, PBS SA Capital also provides a Global Corporate Services which are truly global.
The corporate management also acts as an incubator and accelerator for the companies under management.

Alexander Christodoulakis’s PBS SA Capital has an different approach for different types of enterprise and enterprise sizes. Catering to all three main types of enterprise types, such as: SmallCap | MiddleCap | LargeCap
Each one has a different need and different type of facilitation from PBS SA Capital.

The approach is a tailored approach and includes a growth strategy for companies either on a growth stage or either on a strategic expansion stage.

PBS SA Capital Group, provides a full range of financial services which include and are not limited to:

a) Debt Financing – Secured & Unsecured
b) Equity Financing
c) Private Equity
d) Private Placements
e) Pre-IPO financing
f) IPO – Global Coverage – more than 10 stock exchanges world-wide
g) Global M&A
h) Reverse Mergers
i) RTO’s

Combining Alexander Christodoulakis’s full range of financial services, global corporate services including with the corporate management services, the companies cooperating with his firm can truly grow and expand with this first class management.